Giuseppe Veltri's research interests focus on the religion of ancient Judaism, medieval philosophy, the culture and philosophy of the Renaissance and Early Modern Period, and the Science of Judaism. He successfully realised several research projects dedicated to these fields, please see the tab "Projects" for details.

The research on the subjects of his doctoral dissertation on Jewish-Hellenistic and rabbinical conceptions of translation and his habilitation thesis on magic, Jewish law and science Veltri's are further extended and deepened through the DFG project Midrash Tehillim that realized the edition of the rabbinic Midrash to Psalms, as well as the DFG project Sprachauffassungen, that investigates the relation between the Biblical conception of language and rabbinical and medieval grammatical terminology.

In cooperation with scholars from Israel, France and the Netherlands, and through obtaining third party funding, Giuseppe Veltri realized the important pilot project PESHAT (short for "Philosophic and Scientific Hebrew Terminology"), which is his key work in the area of Jewish philosophy. PESHAT is a long-term project that aims at the systematic study of the emergence and development of the philosophic and scientific terminology of premodern Hebrew in its cultural and historical context. An online multilingual thesaurus of medieval Hebrew philosophical and scientific terminology, accessible via the project's homepage, is a 21st-century upgrade of and supplement to its printed predecessor, Jacob Klatzkin's Thesaurus philosophicus linguae hebraicae et veteris et recentioris, published in 5 volumes in Berlin in 1928-1933.

Giuseppe Veltri devoted much of his scholary endeavour to the study of Renaissance philosophy and religious views. He translated and published the philosophical sermons of Judah Moscato and organized several conferences and symposia on the intellectual life of the Jews during the Early Modern period in Italy and elsewhere. A second project in this field is preparing the edition of the works of Simone Luzzatto.

The study of the Science of Judaism is associated with the name of Leopold Zunz, the founder of the Wissenschaft des Judentums, who did his doctorate at the University of Halle and whose name is closely connected with the Leopold Zunz Center for the research on European Jewry that Giuseppe Veltri founded at the University of Halle-Wittenberg. Veltri made the entire Jerusalem archive of Zunz available through cataloguing and digitalisation of more than 30,000 fols.